The Wisdom Behind Islamic Inheritance Law
Islamic inheritance law is an integral part of the Islamic legal system, derived from the teachings of the Quran and the Sunnah (the practices and sayings of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him). It provides a comprehensive framework for the distribution of wealth and assets among heirs after a person’s demise. The wisdom behind Islamic inheritance law extends beyond its legal aspects and encompasses various social, economic, and spiritual benefits. In this article, we will explore the wisdom and underlying principles of Islamic inheritance law, highlighting its significance in promoting fairness, preserving family ties, and fostering societal harmony.
The Islamic inheritance law contains, beyond question, the most refined and elaborate system of rules for the devolution of property that is known in the civilized world. Islamic Inheritance is built on a solid foundation that does not exist in any other inheritance system.
Muslims follow the rules that are given in the Quran. It’s a holy book that has information regarding everything in our lives. Muslims live their lives following the instructions present in the Holy Quran. Inheritance is another important subject that every Muslim should know about. Islamic jurisprudence deals with an inheritance that is followed by Islamic law. Islamic will calculator helps to calculate the inheritance that is based on Islamic sharia rules.
Fair Distribution of Wealth
One of the primary objectives of Islamic inheritance law is to ensure a fair distribution of wealth among heirs. The Quranic injunctions clearly outline the entitlements of different relatives, prescribing specific shares for spouses, children, parents, and other relatives. This system of fixed shares aims to prevent any arbitrary distribution or concentration of wealth in the hands of a few individuals. It ensures that each heir receives their rightful portion, regardless of their social status or financial situation. By promoting equitable distribution, Islamic inheritance law helps address income disparities and reduces the potential for familial disputes.
Preservation of Family Ties
Islamic inheritance law also emphasizes the preservation of family ties. It recognizes the inherent rights and obligations that exist within familial relationships and seeks to maintain harmony and solidarity among family members. The prescribed shares for different relatives, including parents, children, and siblings, promote a sense of mutual care and responsibility. The law recognizes the importance of maintaining strong family bonds and discourages actions that may lead to conflicts or estrangement. By providing a clear framework for the distribution of assets, Islamic inheritance law contributes to the preservation of family unity and cooperation.
Economic Stability and Wealth Preservation
Another wisdom behind Islamic inheritance law lies in its contribution to economic stability and wealth preservation. The fixed shares allotted to heirs prevent the dissipation of wealth and assets that may occur in the absence of a structured inheritance system. By ensuring that a significant portion of the estate remains within the family, the law helps to sustain economic stability over generations. This stability facilitates long-term planning, encourages investment, and promotes the growth of businesses and enterprises. Islamic inheritance law acts as a safeguard against the rapid depletion of wealth and promotes the accumulation of assets for the benefit of future generations.
Encouragement of Philanthropy and Charitable Giving
Islamic inheritance law also encourages philanthropy and charitable giving. While the law establishes the entitlements of heirs, it allows individuals to allocate a portion of their estate for charitable purposes through voluntary bequests (wasiyyah). This provision enables individuals to support charitable organizations, educational institutions, or any other cause they deem beneficial to society. By facilitating philanthropic endeavors, Islamic inheritance law fosters a culture of giving and contributes to the well-being of the wider community. It promotes the idea that wealth is a trust from God and should be utilized for the betterment of society as a whole.
Spiritual Reflection and Reminder of Mortality
Islamic inheritance law serves as a spiritual reminder of the temporary nature of worldly possessions and the inevitability of death. The process of estate planning and the consideration of inheritance obligations prompt individuals to reflect on their mortality and the transitory nature of worldly wealth. This reflection encourages a deeper connection with one’s faith and a greater focus on the pursuit of righteous deeds. Islamic inheritance law invites individuals to prioritize their spiritual journey and consider the impact of their actions in the context of the hereafter.
What is Islamic inheritance?
It is the right of every man or woman they get from their deceased family member. The distribution of property or shares among the family following the will of the deceased is called the inheritance of the will. Which is revealed after the death of the person. It is calculated by an Islamic will calculator mentioning all the nominees.
Level of heirs
Primary or immediate heirs are:
- Spouse (husband or 4 wives)
- Children (sons + daughters)
- Parents (father, mother)
- Grandchildren (son’s son or his daughter) *Only if the son is already deceased and has offspring)
Secondary heirs are
- Grandparents (paternal and maternal)
- Brothers and sisters (if father and son are not present)
- Uncles and aunts (only if grandparents are not present)
- Nephews and nieces (absence of brother and sisters only)
Quran has set the rules of distribution that is to the male a portion equal to that of two females. Inheritance is an important part of sharia. These rules are carried out upon the death of any Muslim that is
- Funeral and burial expenses payment
- If there are any debts on the deceased, it has to be paid
- 1/3 of the estate of the deceased shall be given in the will.
- According to sharia law, distribute the remainder among the relatives of the will
This is to find out among the relatives who are entitled to inherit the will
The task is done by the Islamic will calculator which runs by the rules of Islamic sharia law. If we take an example of a deceased man who has left 200,000 amount in inheritance for the following heirs
- Father = 1
- Mother =1
- Wife = 1
- Daughters = 2
- Sons = 2
- The amount will be distributed by putting the values in the Islamic will calculations which can be found online as well.
- The share will go as follows to each heir
- Total amount = 200,000
- Father = 1/6, 33,333
- Mother = 1/6, 33,333
- Wife = 1/ 8, 25000
- Daughter 1 = 13/144, 18055
- Daughter 2 = 13/144, 18055
- Son 1 = 13/72, 36111
- Son 2 = 13/72, 36111
According to the Quran if the deceased left children, parents will get one by the sixth share.
So the parents will take the 24th part of the 144 parts.
The diseased wife will get the one by the 8th share if he left the children behind. So she gets 18 parts of the 144 parts
For the daughters, the Quran has said the male share is equal to the shares of two females. So the daughters get 1/3 and the sons get 2/3.
Islamic will calculator doesn’t limit to the above-mentioned heirs. If there are no ascendants or decedents, but has left brother and sister. Each of them gets a 1/6 share.
If a woman dies with no child and a husband her brothers take the inheritance.
FAQs on Islamic Inheritance
1. What is Islamic inheritance and why is it important?
Islamic inheritance refers to the distribution of a deceased person’s assets and properties among their rightful heirs according to the principles outlined in Islamic law, or Sharia. It is a significant aspect of Islamic jurisprudence and holds great importance in the lives of Muslims. Islamic inheritance ensures a fair and just distribution of wealth, promotes social harmony, and upholds the rights and obligations of family members.
Three important points about Islamic inheritance:
- Islamic inheritance is based on the teachings of the Quran and the Hadith (sayings and actions of Prophet Muhammad), which provide detailed guidelines on how assets should be distributed among heirs.
- It aims to prevent disputes and conflicts among family members by establishing clear rules and ensuring that everyone receives their fair share.
- Islamic inheritance takes into consideration the relationship and financial needs of the heirs, as well as the overall well-being of society.
2. Who are the eligible heirs in Islamic inheritance?
In Islamic inheritance, certain individuals are designated as eligible heirs who are entitled to receive a portion of the deceased person’s estate. The heirs are determined based on a specific order of priority defined by Islamic law.
Three important points about eligible heirs in Islamic inheritance:
- The primary heirs in Islamic inheritance are immediate family members, including spouses, children, parents, and siblings. These individuals have fixed shares prescribed by Sharia.
- If there are no eligible heirs from the immediate family, more distant relatives such as grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins may become entitled to a share of the inheritance.
- Non-family members, such as friends or charitable organizations, are generally not considered eligible heirs under Islamic inheritance law.
3. How is the distribution of assets calculated in Islamic inheritance?
The distribution of assets in Islamic inheritance follows a specific methodology based on fixed shares and prescribed percentages for each category of heirs. The calculation process involves determining the total value of the deceased person’s estate and allocating it among the eligible heirs according to their respective shares.
Three important points about the calculation of Islamic inheritance:
- Islamic inheritance divides the estate into two main categories: the residuary estate (awrat) and the remainder estate (aqrab al-radd). The residuary estate is distributed among the primary heirs, while the remainder estate is allocated to more distant relatives.
- The primary heirs have predetermined shares known as “fara’id.” For example, the shares of sons, daughters, and parents are clearly defined, while the share of the spouse depends on the presence of other heirs. If there are no primary heirs, the distribution follows a different set of rules.
- In cases where the distribution according to fixed shares may cause hardship or injustice, Islamic jurisprudence allows for adjustments to be made while still ensuring that the overall principles of fairness and equity are upheld.
4. What happens if someone is excluded from Islamic inheritance?
Islamic inheritance law provides a framework to ensure that eligible heirs receive their rightful shares. However, there may be circumstances where an individual is excluded from inheritance or receives a reduced share. These situations can arise due to specific conditions outlined in Sharia.
Three important points about exclusion from Islamic inheritance:
- Islamic inheritance law allows for the exclusion of certain individuals from inheritance under specific circumstances. For example, non-Muslims, those who have committed acts of disbelief (apostasy), and those who have intentionally caused the death of the deceased person may be excluded from inheritance.
- An individual who has been excluded from inheritance does not automatically lose all rights to the deceased person’s assets. They may still receive a bequest (wasiyyah) of up to one-third of the estate’s value, which can be distributed to them according to their wishes in the form of a charitable donation or a gift to others. 3. The exclusion of an individual from inheritance does not absolve them from their moral obligations towards the deceased person’s family. They may still have responsibilities such as providing financial support or fulfilling other familial duties, regardless of their exclusion from inheritance.
5. What are the key principles and benefits of Islamic inheritance?
Islamic inheritance is guided by several fundamental principles that aim to ensure fairness, justice, and social cohesion. Understanding these principles helps shed light on the benefits of implementing Islamic inheritance laws.
Three important points about the principles and benefits of Islamic inheritance:
- Equity and Fairness: Islamic inheritance seeks to distribute wealth equitably among heirs, taking into account their respective rights and needs. It prevents the concentration of wealth in the hands of a few and promotes economic balance within families and society.
- Family Solidarity: Islamic inheritance strengthens family ties and fosters a sense of responsibility and care among relatives. It encourages mutual support and cooperation, contributing to the overall stability and well-being of the family unit.
- Social Welfare: Islamic inheritance promotes the well-being of society as a whole. Ensuring that assets are distributed among heirs and not concentrated in the hands of a few individuals, it helps reduce socioeconomic disparities and addresses societal needs.
In conclusion, Islamic inheritance plays a crucial role in the lives of Muslims by providing a framework for the fair and just distribution of wealth after death. Its principles and calculations ensure that eligible heirs receive their rightful shares, promoting family harmony, social cohesion, and economic balance. By upholding these principles, Islamic inheritance contributes to a more equitable and just society.
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